|Location||Augusta, Georgia, U.S.|
|Course(s)||Augusta National Golf Club|
|Length||7,435 yards (6,799 m)|
Japan Golf Tour
|Prize fund||$8.0 million|
|Tournament record score|
|Aggregate||270 Tiger Woods (1997)|
|To par||−18 Tiger Woods (1997)|
|2013 Masters Tournament|
The Masters Tournament, also known as The Masters or The US Masters is one of the four major championships in professional golf. Scheduled for the first full week of April, it is the first of the majors to be played each year. Unlike the other major championships, the Masters is held each year at the same location, Augusta National Golf Club, a private golf club in the city of Augusta, Georgia, USA. The Masters was started by Clifford Roberts and Bobby Jones. Jones designed Augusta National with course architect Alister MacKenzie. The tournament is an official money event on the PGA Tour, the European Tour, and the Japan Golf Tour. The field of players is smaller than those of the other major championships because it is an invitational event, held by the Augusta National Golf Club.
The tournament has a number of traditions. Since 1949, a green jacket has been awarded to the champion, who must return it to the clubhouse one year after the time of that player’s victory. In most instances, the green jacket is only removed from the club’s grounds by a first-time champion. A golfer who wins the event multiple times uses the same green jacket awarded upon his initial win (unless he needs to be re-fitted with a new green jacket).
Beginning in 1963, legendary golfers, usually past champions, have hit an honorary tee shot on the morning of the first round. Such golfers have included Fred McLeod, Jock Hutchinson, Gene Sarazen, Sam Snead, Byron Nelson, Arnold Palmer, Jack Nicklaus and Gary Player. Since 1960, a semi-social par 3 contest, on a par-3 course on Augusta National’s grounds, has been played on the day before the first round of each Masters Tournament.
Nicklaus has won more Masters Tournaments than any other golfer, winning six times between 1963 and 1986. Other multiple winners include Arnold Palmer and Tiger Woods, with four each; and Jimmy Demaret, Sam Snead, Gary Player, Nick Faldo and Phil Mickelson, with three each. Player, from South Africa, was the first non-American player to win the tournament in 1961.
Since the Augusta National course first opened in 1933, it has been modified many times by different architects. Among the changes: greens have been reshaped and, on occasion, entirely re-designed, bunkers have been added, water hazards have been extended, new tee boxes have been built, hundreds of trees have been planted, and several mounds have been installed.
Augusta National Golf Club
The idea for Augusta National originated with Bobby Jones, who wanted to build a golf course after his retirement from the game. He sought advice from Clifford Roberts, who later became the chairman of the club. They came across a piece of land in Augusta, Georgia, of which Jones said: “Perfect! And to think this ground has been lying here all these years waiting for someone to come along and lay a golf course upon it.” The land had been an indigo plantation in the early nineteenth century and a plant nursery since 1857. Jones hired Alister MacKenzie to help design the course, and work began in 1931. The course formally opened in 1933, but MacKenzie died before the first Masters Tournament was played.
Early tournament years
The first “Augusta National Invitational” Tournament, as the Masters was originally known, began on March 22, 1934, and was won by Horton Smith. The present name was adopted in 1939. The first tournament was played with current holes 10 through 18 played as the first nine, and 1 through 9 as the second nine then reversed permanently to its present layout for the 1935 tournament.
Initially the Augusta National Invitational field was composed of Bobby Jones’ close associates. Jones had petitioned the USGA to hold the U.S. Open at Augusta but the USGA denied the petition, noting that the hot Georgia summers would create difficult playing conditions.
Gene Sarazen hit the “shot heard ’round the world” in 1935, holing a shot from the fairway on the par 5 15th for a double eagle. This tied Sarazen with Craig Wood, and in the ensuing 36-hole playoff Sarazen was the victor by five strokes. The tournament was not played from 1943 to 1945, due to World War II. To assist the war effort, cattle and turkeys were raised on the Augusta National grounds.
The Big Three of Palmer, Player, and Nicklaus dominated the Masters from 1960 through 1978, winning the event twelve times among them during that span. After winning by one stroke in 1958, Palmer won by one stroke again in 1960 in memorable circumstances. Trailing Ken Venturi by one shot in the 1960 event, Palmer made birdies on the last two holes to prevail. Palmer would go on to win another two Masters in 1962 and 1964.
Jack Nicklaus emerged in the early 1960s, and served as a rival to the popular Palmer. Nicklaus won his first green jacket in 1963, defeating Tony Lema by one stroke. Two years later, he shot a then-course record of 271 (17 under par) for his second Masters win, leading Bobby Jones to say that Nicklaus played “a game with which I am not familiar.” The next year, Nicklaus won his third green jacket in a grueling 18-hole playoff against Tommy Jacobs and Gay Brewer. This made Nicklaus the first player to win consecutive Masters. He won again in 1972 by three strokes. In 1975, Nicklaus was locked in a duel with Tom Weiskopf and Johnny Miller. In one of the most exciting Masters to date, he claimed the victory by one stroke over his two challengers.
Player became the first non-American to win the Masters in 1961, beating Palmer, the defending champion. In 1974 he won again by two strokes. After not winning a tournament for four years, and at the age of 42, Player won his third and final Masters in 1978 by one stroke over three players. Player currently shares (with Fred Couples) the record of making 23 consecutive cuts, and has played in a record 52 Masters.
A controversial ending to the Masters occurred in 1968. Roberto DeVicenzo signed a scorecard (scored by playing partner Tommy Aaron) which incorrectly listed a 4 instead of a 3 on the 17th hole. This extra stroke cost him a chance to be in an 18-hole Monday playoff with Bob Goalby, who won the green jacket. DeVicenzo’s mistake led to the famous quote, “What a stupid I am.”
Non-Americans collected 11 victories in 20 years in the 1980s and 1990s, by far the strongest run they have had in any of the three majors played in the United States since the early days of the U.S. Open. The first European to win the Masters was Seve Ballesteros in 1980. Nicklaus became the oldest player to win the Masters in 1986 when he won for the sixth time at age 46.
During this period, no golfer suffered from the pressure of competing at Augusta more than Greg Norman. In 1987, Norman lost a sudden-death playoff to Larry Mize. Mize holed out a remarkable 45-yard pitch shot to birdie the second playoff hole and win the Masters. In 1996, Norman tied the course record with an opening round 63, and had a six-stroke lead over Nick Faldo entering the final round. Norman shot a 78 while Faldo scored a 67 to win by five shots (for his third Masters championship). Norman also suffered in 1986 when after birdieing four straight holes, and needing only a par to tie Nicklaus for the lead, he badly pushed his 4-iron approach to 18 and missed his par putt for bogey.
In 1997, Tiger Woods won the Masters by twelve shots at age 21, in the process breaking the tournament four-day scoring record that had stood for 32 years. Woods completed his “Tiger Slam” by winning his fourth straight major championship at the Masters in 2001. The Masters was his again the next year, making him only the third player in history to win the tournament in consecutive years, as well as in 2005 when he defeated Chris DiMarco in a playoff for his first major championship win in almost three years.
Recently, the club was targeted by Martha Burk, who organized a failed protest at the 2003 Masters to pressure the club into accepting female members. Burk planned to protest at the front gates of Augusta National during the third day of the tournament, but her application for a permit to do so was denied. A court appeal was dismissed. In 2004, Burk stated that she had no further plans to protest against the club.
Augusta National Chairman Billy Payne himself made headlines in April 2010, however, when he commented (at the annual pre-Masters press conference) on Tiger Woods’ off-the-course behavior. “It’s not simply the degree of his conduct that is so egregious here,” Payne said, in his opening speech. “It is the fact he disappointed all of us and more importantly our kids and grandkids.”
The 2003 tournament was won by Mike Weir, who became the first Canadian to win a major championship, and the first left-hander to win the Masters. The following year, another left-hander, Phil Mickelson, won his first major championship by making a birdie on the final hole to beat Ernie Els by a stroke. Mickelson also won the tournament in 2006 and 2010. In 2011, the tournament was won by South African Charl Schwartzel, who birdied the final four holes to win by two strokes. In 2012, Bubba Watson won the tournament on the second playoff hole. Watson’s win marked the fifth time that a left-hander won the Masters in the previous ten tournaments. Prior to 2003, no left-hander had ever won the Masters.
The total prize money for the 2008 tournament was $7,500,000, with $1,350,000 going to the winner. In the inaugural year, the winner Horton Smith received $1,500 out of a $5,000 purse. After Nicklaus’s first win in 1963, he received $20,000, while after his final victory in 1986 he won $144,000. In recent years the purse has grown quickly. Between 2001 and 2008, the winners share grew by $270,000, and the purse grew by $1,500,000.
In addition to a cash prize, the winner of the tournament is presented with a distinctive green jacket, formally awarded since 1949, and informally acquired by the champions for many years before that. The green sport coat is the official attire worn by members of Augusta National while on the club grounds; each Masters winner becomes an honorary member of the club. The recipient of the green jacket has it presented to him inside the Butler Cabin soon after the end of the tournament, and the presentation is then repeated outside near the 18th green in front of the spectators. Winners keep their jacket for the first year after their first victory, then return it to the club to wear whenever they visit. The tradition began in 1949, when Sam Snead won his first of three Masters titles. The green jacket is only allowed to be removed from Augusta National by the reigning champion, after which it must remain at the club. Exceptions to this rule include Gary Player, who in his joy of winning mistakenly took his jacket home to South Africa after his 1961 victory (although he has always followed the spirit of the rule and has never worn the jacket); Seve Ballesteros who, in an interview with Peter Alliss from his home in Pedreña, showed one of his two green jackets in his trophy room; and Henry Picard, whose jacket was removed from the club before the tradition was well established, remained in his closet for a number of years, and is now on display at Canterbury Golf Club in Beachwood, Ohio, where he was the club professional for many years.
By tradition, the winner of the previous year’s Masters Tournament puts the jacket on the current winner at the end of the tournament. In 1966, Jack Nicklaus became the first player to win in consecutive years and he donned the jacket himself. When Nick Faldo (in 1990) and Tiger Woods (in 2002) repeated as champions, the chairman of Augusta National put the jacket on them.
There are several awards presented to players who perform exceptional feats during the tournament. The player who has the daily lowest score receives a crystal vase, while players who score a hole-in-one or a double eagle win a large crystal bowl. For each eagle a player makes he receives a pair of crystal goblets. The winner of the par 3 competition, which is played the day before the tournament begins, wins a crystal bowl.
In addition to the green jacket, winners of the tournament receive a gold medal. They have their names engraved on the actual silver Masters trophy, introduced in 1961, which depicts the clubhouse. This trophy remains at Augusta National; since 1993 winners have received a sterling silver replica. The runner-up receives a silver medal, introduced in 1951. Beginning in 1978, a silver salver was added as an award for the runner-up.
In 1952 the Masters began presenting an award, known as the Silver Cup, to the lowest scoring amateur to make the cut. In 1954 they began presenting an amateur silver medal to the low amateur runner-up.
As with the other majors, winning the Masters gives a golfer several privileges which make his career more secure. Masters champions are automatically invited to play in the other three majors (the U.S. Open, the British Open, and the PGA Championship (except for amateur winners unless they turn pro within the five-year period)) for the next five years, and earn a lifetime invitation to the Masters. They also receive membership on the PGA Tour for the following five seasons and invitations to The Players Championship for five years.
Because the tournament was established by the amateur golfer Bobby Jones, the Masters has a tradition of honoring amateur golf. It invites winners of the most prestigious amateur tournaments in the world. Also, the current U.S. Amateur champion always plays in the same group as the defending Masters champion for the first two days of the tournament.
Since 1963 the custom in most years has been to start the tournament with an honorary opening tee shot at the first hole, typically by one of golf’s legendary players. The original honorary starters were Jock Hutchison and Fred McLeod; this twosome led off every tournament from 1963 until 1973, when poor health prevented Hutchison from swinging a club. McLeod continued on until his death in 1976. Byron Nelson and Gene Sarazen started in 1981, and were then joined by Sam Snead in 1984. This trio continued until 1999 when Sarazen died, while Nelson stopped in 2001. Snead hit his final opening tee shot in 2001, a year before he too died. In 2007, Arnold Palmer took over as the honorary starter. Palmer also had the honor in 2008 and 2009. At the 2010 and 2011 Masters Tournaments, Jack Nicklaus joined Palmer as a co-honorary starter for the event. In 2012, Gary Player joined them.
The Champions’ dinner is held each year on the Tuesday evening preceding Thursday’s first round. The dinner was first held in 1952, hosted by defending champion Ben Hogan, to honor the past champions of the tournament. At that time 15 tournaments had been played, and the number of past champions was 11 (including Hogan). Officially known as the “Masters Club”, it includes only past winners of the Masters, although selected members of the Augusta National Golf Club have been included as honorary members, usually the chairman. The defending champion, as host, selects the menu for the dinner. Over the years, one of the most notable dishes was haggis, served by Scotsman Sandy Lyle in 1989. Frequently, Masters champions opt to serve finely prepared cuisine by the Masters chef from their home regions. Notable examples have included bobotie, a South African delicacy served at the behest of 2008 Masters Tournament champion Trevor Immelman. Previous examples also include German Bernhard Langer’s 1986 Wiener Schnitzel feast, Britain’s Nick Faldo’s Fish and Chips, Canadian Mike Weir’s elk and wild boar, and Vijay Singh’s Seafood Tom Kah and Chicken Panang Curry. Prior to the 1998 Champions Dinner, 1979 Masters Champion Fuzzy Zoeller created a media firestorm when he suggested that Tiger Woods refrain from serving collard greens and fried chicken, dishes commonly associated with Afro-American culture, at the traditional clubhouse feast. The 1991 Masters Champion, Ian Woosnam, has asserted that Angel Cabrera’s asado, prepared diligently by Chef James Clark, Jr., represented the finest interpretation of Argentine cuisine known to a Masters chef.
The par 3 contest was first introduced in 1960, and was won that year by Snead. Since then it has traditionally been played on the Wednesday before the tournament starts. The par 3 course was built in 1958. It is a nine-hole course, with a par of 27, and measures 1,060 yards (970 m) in length. There have been 73 holes-in-one in the history of the contest, with a record five occurring in 2002. No par 3 contest winner has also won the Masters in the same year. There have been several repeat winners, including Pádraig Harrington, Sandy Lyle and Sam Snead. The former two won in successive years. In this event, golfers may use their children as caddies, which helps to create a family-friendly atmosphere. In 2008, the event was televised for the first time by ESPN.
Before 1982 all players in the Masters were required to use the services of an Augusta National Club caddy, who by club tradition was always an African American. Indeed, club co-founder Clifford Roberts is reputed to have said, “As long as I’m alive, golfers will be white, and caddies will be black.” Since 1982, players have been allowed the option of using their own caddy. The Masters requires caddies to wear a uniform consisting of a white jumpsuit, a green Masters cap, and white tennis shoes. The surname, and sometimes first initial, of each player is found on the back of his caddie’s uniform. The defending champion always receives caddy number “1”: other golfers get their caddy numbers from the order in which they register for the tournament.
The day after the tournament closes, The Bobby Jones Scholars from The University of St Andrews in Scotland play a four-ball round on the course – the last people to do so before the greenkeepers start the process of repairing and restoring the course to pre-tournament standard.
The Masters is the first acknowledged major golf championship of the year and since 1940 has been played so that the final round is always played on the second Sunday of April with the exception of 1979 when Fuzzy Zoeller won on the third Sunday in April.
The tournament comprises four “rounds”; each round comprises 18 holes. Round One play commences on Thursday, Round Two on Friday, Round Three on Saturday, and the tournament comes to an end with Round Four on Sunday (when there are no delays). The Masters has a relatively small field of contenders, when compared with other golf tournaments, so the competitors play in groups of three for the first two rounds (36 holes) and the field is not split to start on the 1st and 10th tees unless weather shortens the available playing time.
After 36 holes of play, a cut-off score is calculated and eliminations are made, thereby reducing the field. Typically, to “make the cut”, players must be either within 44 places of the lead (ties counting), or within 10 strokes of the leader’s score. These criteria have applied since the 1961 tournament. From 1957 to 1960, the top 40 scores (including ties) and all of those within 10 strokes of the leader made the cut. Before 1957, there was no 36-hole cut.
Following the cut, an additional 36 holes are played over the final two days. Should the final round fail to produce a winner, all players who are tied for the lead enter a sudden-death round. Play then alternates, between the 18th hole and the 10th, until one player is left.
|2||Pink Dogwood||575||5||11||White Dogwood||505||4|
|3||Flowering Peach||350||4||12||Golden Bell||155||3|
|4||Flowering Crab Apple||240||3||13||Azalea||510||5|
Lengths of the course for The Masters at the start of each decade:
As with many other courses, Augusta National’s championship setup was lengthened in recent years. In 2001, the course measured 6,925 yards (6,332 m) and was extended to 7,270 yards (6,648 m) for 2002, and again in 2006 to 7,445 yards (6,808 m); 520 yards (475 m) longer than the 2001 course. The changes attracted many critics, including the most successful players in Masters history, Jack Nicklaus, Arnold Palmer, Gary Player and Tiger Woods. Woods claimed that the “shorter hitters are going to struggle.” Augusta National chairman Hootie Johnson was unperturbed, stating, “We are comfortable with what we are doing with the golf course.” After a practice round, Gary Player defended the changes, saying, “There have been a lot of criticisms, but I think unjustly so, now I’ve played it…. The guys are basically having to hit the same second shots that Jack Nicklaus had to hit (in his prime)”.
Originally, the grass on the putting greens was the wide-bladed Bermuda. The greens lost speed, especially during the late 1970s, after the introduction of a healthier strain of narrow-bladed Bermuda, which thrived and grew thicker,. In 1978, the greens on the par 3 course were reconstructed with bentgrass, a narrow-bladed species that could be mowed shorter, eliminating grain. After this test run, the greens on the main course were replaced with bentgrass in time for the 1981 Masters. The bentgrass resulted in significantly faster putting surfaces, which has required a reduction in some of the contours of the greens over time.
Just before the 1975 tournament, the common beige sand in the bunkers was replaced with the now-signature white feldspar. It is a quartz derivative of the mining of feldspar and is shipped in from North Carolina.
The Masters has the smallest field out of the major championships at around 90 players. Unlike other majors, there are no alternates. It is an invitational event, with invitations largely issued on an automatic basis to players who meet published criteria. The top 50 players in the Official World Golf Ranking are all invited.
Past champions are always eligible, but since 2002 the Augusta National Golf Club has discouraged them from continuing to participate at an advanced age.
Invitation categories: Categories 6–10 are honored provided the participants maintain their amateur status prior to the tournament.
- Masters Tournament Champions (Lifetime)
- U.S. Open Champions (Honorary, non-competing after five years)
- The Open Champions (Honorary, non-competing after five years)
- PGA Champions (Honorary, non-competing after five years)
- Winners of the Players Championship (Three years)
- Current U.S. Amateur Champion (6-A) and Runner-up (6-B) (Honorary, non-competing after one year);
- Current British Amateur Champion (Honorary, non-competing after one year)
- Current Asia-Pacific Amateur Champion
- Current U.S. Amateur Public Links Champion
- Current U.S. Mid-Amateur Champion
- The first 16 players, including ties, in the previous year’s Masters Tournament
- The first 8 players, including ties, in the previous year’s U.S. Open
- The first 4 players, including ties, in the previous year’s Open Championship
- The first 4 players, including ties, in the previous year’s PGA Championship
- The 30 leaders on the Final Official PGA Tour Money List for the previous calendar year
- Winners of PGA Tour Regular Season and Playoff events that award at least a full-point allocation for the season-ending Tour Championship, from previous Masters to current Masters.
- Those qualifying for the previous year’s season-ending Tour Championship
- The 50 leaders on the Final Official World Golf Ranking for the previous calendar year
- The 50 leaders on the Official World Golf Ranking published during the week prior to the current Masters Tournament
Most of the top current players will meet the criteria of multiple categories for invitation. The Masters Committee, at its discretion, can also invite any golfer not otherwise qualified, although in practice these invitations are currently reserved for international players.
The first winner of the Masters Tournament was Horton Smith in 1934. He repeated his win in 1936. The player with the most Masters victories is Jack Nicklaus, who won six times between 1963 and 1986. Arnold Palmer and Tiger Woods have each won four, and Jimmy Demaret, Gary Player, Sam Snead, Nick Faldo and Phil Mickelson have three titles to their name. Player also became the tournament’s first overseas winner with his first victory in 1961. Other notable winners include Byron Nelson, Ben Hogan, Tom Watson, Seve Ballesteros, Bernhard Langer, Ben Crenshaw and José María Olazábal, who have all won the Masters twice.
- The number in parentheses indicates the number of players involved in each playoff.
- The sudden-death format was adopted in 1976, first used in 1979, and revised in 2004.
- None of the 9 sudden-death playoffs has advanced past the second hole; four were decided at the first hole, five at the second.
- Playoffs prior to 1976 were full 18-hole rounds, except for 1935, which was 36 holes.
Jack Nicklaus has won the most Masters and was 46 years, 82 days old when he won in 1986, making him the oldest winner of the Masters. Nicklaus is the record holder for the most top tens, with 22, and the most cuts made, with 37. The youngest winner of the Masters is Tiger Woods, who was 21 years, 104 days old when he won in 1997. In that year Woods also broke the records for the widest winning margin (12 strokes), and the lowest winning score, with 270 (−18).
Matteo Manassero became the youngest player ever, and the youngest to make the cut at 16 years, 356 days in 2010. Manassero’s record as the youngest participant stands to be broken in 2013 by Guan Tianlang, who qualified for that year’s Masters by winning the 2012 Asia-Pacific Amateur Championship. At the start of the 2013 Masters, Guan will be 14 years, 168 days old. Gary Player holds the record for most appearances, with 52.
Player also holds the record for the number of consecutive cuts made, with 23 between 1959 and 1982 (Player did not compete in 1973 due to illness). He shares this record with Fred Couples, who made his consecutive cuts between 1983 and 2007, not competing in 1987 and 1994.
The highest winning score of 289 (+1) has occurred three times: Sam Snead in 1954, Jack Burke, Jr. in 1956, and Zach Johnson in 2007. Anthony Kim holds the record for most birdies in a round with 11 in 2009 during his second round.
There have been only four double eagles carded in the history of the Masters; the latest occurring in 2012 when South Africa‘s Louis Oosthuizen, using a 4 iron, holed a reported 260-yard shot on the course’s second hole, called Pink Dogwood. The other two rare occurrences of this feat after Sarazen’s double eagle on the fabled course’s Fire Thorn hole in 1935: Bruce Devlin made double eagle from 248 yards out with a 4 wood at the eighth hole (Yellow Jasmine) in the first round of the 1967 tournament, while Jeff Maggert hit a 3-iron 222 yards at the 13th hole (Azalea) in the fourth round of the 1994 event.
CBS has televised the Masters in the United States every year since 1956, when it used six cameras and covered only the final four holes. Tournament coverage of the first eight holes did not begin until 1993 because of resistance from the tournament organizers, but by 2006, more than 50 cameras were used. USA Network added first- and second-round coverage in 1982, which was also produced by the CBS production team. The Masters is broadcast each year in high-definition television, one of the first golf tournaments to ever hold that distinction, and the early round coverage previously aired in that format on USA’s sister network, Universal HD. In 2008, ESPN and ESPN HD replaced USA and Universal as the weekday coverage provider, with coverage continuing to be jointly produced with CBS.
In 2005, CBS broadcast the tournament with high-definition fixed and handheld wired cameras, as well as standard-definition wireless handheld cameras. In 2006, a webstream called “Amen Corner Live” began providing coverage of all players passing through holes 11, 12, and 13 through all four rounds. This was the first full tournament multi-hole webcast from a major championship. In 2007, CBS added “Masters Extra,” an extra hour of full-field bonus coverage daily on the internet, preceding the television broadcasts. In 2008, CBS added full coverage of holes 15 and 16 live on the web. In 2011, “Masters Extra” was dropped after officials gave ESPN an extra hour each day on Thursday and Friday.
While Augusta National Golf Club has consistently chosen CBS as its U.S. broadcast partner, it has done so in successive one-year contracts. Due to the lack of long-term contractual security, as well as the club’s limited dependence on broadcast rights fees (owing to its affluent membership), it is widely held that CBS allows Augusta National greater control over the content of the broadcast, or at least performs some form of self-censorship, in order to maintain future rights. The club, however, has insisted it does not make any demands with respect to the content of the broadcast.
There are some controversial aspects to this relationship. Announcers refer to the gallery as patrons rather than as spectators or fans (gallery itself is also used), and use the term second cut instead of rough (however, the second cut is normally substantially shorter than comparable “primary rough” at other courses). Announcers who have been deemed not to have acted with the decorum expected by the club have been removed, notably Jack Whitaker and Gary McCord. There also tends to be a lack of discussion of any controversy involving Augusta National, such as the 2003 Martha Burk protests. However, there have not been many other major issues in recent years.
The club mandates minimal commercial interruption, currently limited to four minutes per hour (as opposed to the usual 12 or more); this is subsidized by selling exclusive sponsorship packages to three companies–as of 2013, these “partners” are IBM, ExxonMobil and AT&T. In the immediate aftermath of the Martha Burk controversy, there were no commercials during the 2003 and 2004 broadcasts, although international commercial broadcasters continued to insert their own commercials into the coverage. The Players Championship began imposing the same rule in 2007 and some of the other major championships have tried to follow suit in their most recent TV contracts.
The club also disallows promotions for other network programs, with the sole exception of an on-screen mention of 60 Minutes should the final round run long or right before the coverage ends. Other broadcast material not allowed include sponsored graphics, blimps, and on-course announcers. There is also typically no cut-in for other news and sports, either from CBS or its affiliates. The CBS broadcasts also maintained a modified version of their previous graphics package from the 1990s until 2009 for the broadcasts, updated in 2008 to adopt a glossier dark green and silver color scheme similar to their standard golf graphics. A new graphics package debuted for the 2010 edition. ESPN’s broadcasts have also shared the same graphics and music since their displacement of USA Network.
Significant restrictions have been placed on the tournament’s broadcast hours compared to other major championships. Only in the 21st century did the tournament allow CBS to air 18-hole coverage of the leaders, a standard at the other three majors. Only three hours of cable coverage is scheduled for the early rounds each day. International broadcasters do not receive additional coverage, although they may take commercial breaks at different times from CBS or ESPN.
Dial Global (previously Westwood One and CBS Radio) has provided live radio play-by-play coverage in the United States since 1956. This coverage can also be heard on the official Masters website. The network provides short two- or three-minute updates throughout the tournament, as well as longer three- and four-hour segments towards the end of the day.
The BBC has broadcast the Masters in the UK since 1986, and it also provides live radio commentary on the closing stages on Radio Five Live. With the 2007 launch of BBC HD, UK viewers can now watch the championship in that format. BBC Sport held the TV and radio rights through to 2010. The BBC’s coverage airs without commercials because it is financed by a licence fee. From the 2011 Masters, Sky Sports began broadcasting all four days, as well as the par 3 contest in HD and, for the first time ever, in 3D. The BBC will only have highlights of the first two days’ play but will go head to head with Sky Sports, with full live coverage on the final two days of play. In Ireland, from 2008 Setanta Ireland will broadcast all four rounds live having previously broadcasted the opening two rounds with RTÉ broadcasting the weekend coverage.
In Canada, the broadcast rights are held by a marketing company, Graham Sanborn Media, which in turn buys time on TSN (early rounds and weekend rebroadcasts), Global (weekend rounds live), and TVA Sports and TVA (French-language early-round and weekend-round coverage, respectively) to air the broadcasts. Graham Sanborn also sells all of the advertising for the Canadian broadcasts. This is an unusual arrangement in Canadian sports broadcasting, as in most cases broadcasters acquire their rights directly from the event organizers (or through partnerships with international rightsholders). The TSN/Global coverage is identical to the CBS/ESPN feed; the French-language broadcast (previously on RDS) has historically used the U.S. video feed but with commentary in French.
Although tickets for the Masters are not expensive, they are very difficult to come by. Even the practice rounds can be difficult to get into. Applications for practice round tickets have to be made nearly a year in advance and the successful applicants are chosen by random ballot. Tickets to the actual tournament are sold only to members of a patrons list, which is closed. A waiting list for the patrons list was opened in 1972 and closed in 1978. It was reopened in 2000 and subsequently closed once again. In 2008, The Masters also began allowing children (between the ages of 8 and 16) to enter on tournament days free if they are accompanied by the patron who is the owner of his or her badge.
The Masters website announced that a limited supply of tickets for the 2012 tournament would be awarded to the general public for both practice days and competition rounds.
- “Inside the course: Augusta National Golf Club”. PGA Tour. April 1, 2012. Retrieved August 24, 2012.
- “History at a Glance”. http://www.masters.org. Retrieved 2008-04-13.
- The Making of the Masters, by David Owen
- Sampson, Curt (1999). The Masters: Golf, Money, and Power in Augusta, Georgia. New York City: Villard Books. p. 22. ISBN 0-375-75337-0 (Paperback).
- Boyette, John (April 03, 2006). “Augusta National’s natural beauty was born in nursery”. Augusta Chronicle. Retrieved August 27, 2012.
- “History of the Club”. http://www.masters.org. Archived from the original on 2008-01-19. Retrieved 2008-01-22.
- Although front and back are the terms more commonly used, for the Masters they are called the “first” and “second” nines
- “The Masters 2012 – Live Leaderboard”. 2012-02-08. Retrieved 2012-04-08.
- Boyette, John (2002-04-10). “With 1 shot, Sarazen gave Masters fame”. The Augusta Chronicle. Archived from the original on 2008-04-07. Retrieved 2008-04-13.
- “Tournament Results: 1935”. http://www.masters.org. Archived from the original on 2008-04-15. Retrieved 2008-04-13.
- “Results from 1958”. Retrieved 2008-11-28.[dead link]
- “Results from 1962”. Retrieved 2008-11-28.[dead link]
- “Results from 1964”. Retrieved 2008-11-28.[dead link]
- Boyette, John. “Masters History: 1963”. The Augusta Chronicle. Retrieved 2008-01-25.[dead link]
- Boyette, John. “Masters History:1965”. The Augusta Chronicle. Retrieved 2008-01-25.[dead link]
- Boyette, John. “Masters History: 1966”. The Augusta Chronicle. Retrieved 2008-11-18.[dead link]
- “Results from 1972”. Retrieved 2008-11-28.[dead link]
- Boyette, John. “Masters History: 1975”. The Augusta Chronicle. Retrieved 2008-01-25.[dead link]
- “Tournament Results: 1961”. http://www.masters.org. Archived from the original on 2007-10-29. Retrieved 2008-01-25.
- “Results from 1974”. Retrieved 2008-11-28.[dead link]
- “Results from 1978”. Retrieved 2008-11-28.[dead link]
- “Records & Statistics”. Retrieved 2008-11-23.[dead link]
- “Masters 2008 Scoring: Gary Player Scorecard”. Retrieved 2008-11-23.
- “Cut Info”. Retrieved 2008-11-23.[dead link]
- “Tournament Results: 1968”. http://www.masters.org. Archived from the original on 2007-10-30. Retrieved 2008-01-29.
- “World Golf Hall of Fame Profile: Roberto De Vicenzo”. World Golf Hall of Fame. Retrieved 2008-01-29.
- McDaniel, Pete (2000). “The trailblazer – Twenty-five years ago, Lee Elder became the first black golfer in the Masters”. Golf Digest. Retrieved 2008-01-29.
- Diaz, Jaime (1990-09-11). “Augusta National Admits First Black Member”. New York Times. Retrieved 2008-11-20.
- “Results from 1986”. Retrieved 2008-11-28.[dead link]
- “Records & Statistics”. Archived from the original on 2008-10-16. Retrieved 2008-11-28.
- Ballard, Sarah. “My, Oh Mize”. Sports Illustrated. Retrieved 2008-02-05.
- “Tournament Results: 1996”. http://www.masters.org. Archived from the original on 2007-11-03. Retrieved 2008-01-21.
- “Results from 2001”. Archived from the original on 2008-10-03. Retrieved 2008-11-28.
- “Results from 2002”. Retrieved 2008-11-28.[dead link]
- “Results from 2005”. Retrieved 2008-11-28.[dead link]
- Brown, Clifton (2003-03-13). “City of Augusta Is Sued Over Protest at the Masters”. New York Times. Retrieved 2008-11-23.
- “Court Rejects Burk Appeal”. The New York Times. 2003-10-04. Retrieved 2008-11-23.
- “To Burk, No Point Picketing Masters”. New York Times. 2004-02-29. Retrieved 2008-11-23.
- Bondy, Filip (2010-04-07). “Masters chairman Billy Payne rips Tiger Woods for ‘disappointing all of us'”. Daily News (New York).
- Svrluga, Barry (2010-04-08). “Billy Payne disappointed in Tiger Woods’s ‘egregious’ behavior”. The Washington Post. Retrieved 2010-05-12.
- “Billy Payne’s remarks regarding Tiger Woods playing at Augusta”. Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 2010-04-11. Retrieved 2010-05-12.
- “Results from 2003”. Retrieved 2008-11-28.[dead link]
- “Results from 2004”. Retrieved 2008-11-28.[dead link]
- “$7,500,000 Masters Results”. The Sports Network. Retrieved 2008-11-28.
- Westin, David (2001-04-07). “Purse exceeds $1 Million”. The Augusta Chronicle. Archived from the original on 2008-10-25. Retrieved 2008-11-28.
- Reilly, Rick (1986-21-04). “Day Of Glory For A Golden Oldie”. Sports Illustrated. Retrieved 2008-11-28.
- Nicklaus, Jack; Bowden, Ken (1974). Golf My Way. Heinemann. ISBN 0-434-51350-4.
- Lukas, Paul. “The real story behind the green jacket”. ESPN. Retrieved 2008-11-18.
- Rick Lispey (1995-04-10). “Master Teacher: Nearly forgotten now, teaching pro Henry Picard was a big star when he won the 1938 Masters”. Sports Illustrated. Retrieved 2011-04-10.
- staff. “Michael Kernicki hosts Major Championship at Canterbury Golf Club”. GolfGuide.com. Retrieved 2011-04-10.
- “Players – Qualifications for Invitation”. Archived from the original on 2008-09-17. Retrieved 2008-11-20.
- “Arnold Palmer to hit opening Masters tee shot”. Golf Today. Retrieved 2008-02-04.
- Hank Gola (2011-04-08). “Arnold Palmer, Jack Nicklaus kick off 2011 Masters as honorary starters with tee shots at Augusta”. New York Daily News. Retrieved 2011-04-08.
- “Frequently Asked Questions at the Masters”. Archived from the original on 2008-10-14. Retrieved 2008-11-20.
- “Masters Club”. http://www.masters.org. Archived from the original on 2008-01-09. Retrieved 2008-01-25.
- Uhles, Steven (2008-04-09). “Par-3 Contest will be family show”. The Augusta Chronicle. Archived from the original on 2008-04-19. Retrieved 2008-04-13.
- “Par 3 Contest”. http://www.masters.org. Archived from the original on 2008-01-19. Retrieved 2008-01-25.
- Kelley, Brent. “The Par-3 Contest at The Masters”. About.com. Retrieved 2008-01-25.
- Rick Reilly (1997-04-21). “Strokes of Genius”. Sports Illustrated. Retrieved 2009-01-01.
- “Cut Information”. http://www.masters.org. Archived from the original on January 19, 2008. Retrieved 2008-01-21.
- “Course Tour: 2012 Masters”. PGA of America: Major Championships. Retrieved August 24, 2012.
- “Changes afoot at Augusta”. BBC Sport. 2001-08-07. Retrieved 2008-01-30.
- Spousta, Tom (2005-06-29). “Augusta National plans to add length”. USA Today. Retrieved 2008-01-30.
- “Row over Augusta changes goes on”. BBC Sport. 2006-04-05. Retrieved 2008-01-21.
- Westin, David (2001-04-01). “Desire for faster greens led to use of Bentgrass”. The Augusta Chronicle. Retrieved 2008-11-20.
- Westin, David. “Desire for faster greens led to use of Bentgrass”. CNNSI.com & The Augusta Chronicle. Retrieved 2008-01-21.
- “Golf Course Guide”. CBS Sports. Retrieved 2008-01-26.
- “2008 Tournament Invitees”. masters.org. Archived from the original on 2008-04-08. Retrieved 2008-04-09.
- Johnson, Martin (2002-04-09). “The Masters: Augusta bows to change with a pompous flourish”. The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 2012-3-25.
- “2010 Masters Tournament Invitees”. Archived from the original on 2009-10-07. Retrieved 2009-11-17.
- Starting with the 2014 Masters, winners of Fall Series tournaments will receive invitations for the first time, assuming that Augusta National makes no further changes to its invitation criteria. Starting in 2013, the PGA Tour season will begin with the Fall Series, and those events will receive full FedEx Cup point allocations. “Fall Series events to offer full FedExCup points” (Press release). PGA Tour. June 26, 2012. Retrieved July 11, 2012.
- “2009 Tournament Invitees”. Archived from the original on 2009-04-04. Retrieved 2009-04-09.
- “Masters: Host Courses and Winners”. Retrieved 2008-11-28.
- “Masters playoff format is changed”. CNN.com. April 7, 2004. Retrieved April 9, 2013.
- “Champions”. http://www.masters.org. Archived from the original on 2008-01-19. Retrieved 2008-01-21.
- “Top Finishers”. http://www.masters.org. Archived from the original on 2008-01-19. Retrieved 2008-01-21.
- “Scoring Statistics”. http://www.masters.org. Archived from the original on 2008-01-19. Retrieved 2008-01-21.
- Harig, Bob (November 4, 2012). “Guan Tianlang, 14, headed to Masters”. ESPN. Retrieved November 4, 2012.
- “Ratings For Each Round of The Masters Since ’82 (First/Second Rounds Since ’99)”. Sportsmediawatch.blogspot.com. Retrieved 2012-04-08.
- “ESPN will show first two rounds of 2008 Masters tournament”. ESPN. 2007-10-10. Retrieved 2008-03-23.
- “Get ready for Amen Corner live”. 2006-03-30. Retrieved 2008-12-23.
- McDonald, Tim. “Is the Masters really the most prestigious sporting event in America?”. WorldGolf.com. Retrieved 2008-12-23.
- “Hinds, Richard (2007-04-05). “Why coverage of US Masters is so polite”. Melbourne: The Age. Retrieved 2008-01-21.
- Martzke, Rudy (2003-04-13). “CBS managed to get Masters right despite silence on protests”. USA Today. Retrieved 2008-01-21.
- “How The Masters Theme Song Came To Be”. Deadspin. April 7, 2012. Retrieved Mar 9, 2013.
- “Masters Format”. Retrieved 2008-12-21.
- “BBC Sport keeps Masters contract”. BBC Sport. 2007-10-12. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- Corrigan, James (2010-09-22). “Sky seizes share of the Masters from BBC”. The Independent (London).
- CEO Setanta Ireland (2007-08-12). “We are fully committed to providing a public service – without public funding”. Independent.ie. Retrieved 2008-12-23.
- William Houston (2008-04-10). “As usual, Woods is the star of Masters coverage”. The Globe and Mail (Toronto). Retrieved 2009-04-10.
- ESPN (press release) (2009-04-02). “ESPN’s 2009 Masters Coverage To Include Expansive Multimedia Applications”. Retrieved 2009-04-10.[dead link]
- Masters.org. “Ticket Information”. Masters.org. Archived from the original on 2008-04-10. Retrieved 2008-04-12.
- Masters.org. “Ticket Information”. Masters.org. Retrieved 2008-04-12.
- Masters.com – official site
- Augusta.com – coverage by The Augusta Chronicle
- GCSSA.org – superintendent’s fact sheet – 2005